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图白马非马译文2012上海外国语大学翻译硕士试题-【xinwen】

发布时间:2021-10-12 11:23:32 阅读: 来源:热缩带厂家

词语翻译:30’1. Austerity measures2. UNSECO3. The US Senate4. APEC5. Washington Post6. NATO7. Arab Spring8. Gary Locke9. Reuters10. Wall Street Journal1. 十二五规划2. 十七届六中全会3. 全国人大4. 新华社5. 软实力6. 中美战略经济对话7. 上海合作组织8. 珠江三角洲9. “西气东输”10. 北京共识短文翻译E-CThe great schools revolutionBy The EconomistFrom The EconomistPublished: September 23, 2011Education remains the trickiest part of attempts to reform the public sector. But as ever more countries embark on it, some vital lessons are beginning to be learnedFROM Toronto to Wroclaw, London to Rome, pupils and teachers have been returning to the classroom after their summer break. But this September schools themselves are caught up in a global battle of ideas. In many countries education is at the forefront of political debate, and reformers desperate to improve their national performance are drawing examples of good practice from all over the world.Why now? One answer is the sheer amount of data available on performance, not just within countries but between them. In 2000 the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) at the OECD, a rich-country club, began tracking academic attainment by the age of 15 in 32 countries. Many were shocked by where they came in the rankings. (PISA's latest figures appear in table 1.) Other outfits, too, have been measuring how good or bad schools are. McKinsey, a consultancy, has monitored which education systems have improved most in recent years.Technology has also made a difference. After a number of false starts, many people now believe that the internet can make a real difference to educating children. Hence the success of institutions like America's Kahn Academy. Experimentation is also infectious; the more governments try things, the more others examine, and copy, the results.Above all, though, there has been a change in the quality of the debate. In particular, what might be called "the three great excuses" for bad schools have receded in importance. Teachers' unions have long maintained that failures in Western education could be blamed on skimpy government spending, social class and cultures that did not value education. All these make a difference, but they do not determine outcomes by themselves.The idea that good schooling is about spending money is the one that has been beaten back hardest. Many of the 20 leading economic performers in the OECD doubled or tripled their education spending in real terms between 1970 and 1994, yet outcomes in many countries stagnated—or went backwards. Educational performance varies widely even among countries that spend similar amounts per pupil. Such spending is highest in the United States—yet America lags behind other developed countries on overall outcomes in secondary education. Andreas Schleicher, head of analysis at PISA, thinks that only about 10% of the variation in pupil performance has anything to do with money.Many still insist, though, that social class makes a difference. Martin Johnson, an education trade unionist, points to Britain's "inequality between classes, which is among the largest in the wealthiest nations" as the main reason why its pupils underperform. A review of reforms over the past decade by researchers at Oxford University supports him. "Despite rising attainment levels," it concludes, "there has been little narrowing of longstanding and sizeable attainment gaps. Those from disadvantaged backgrounds remain at higher risks of poor outcomes." American studies confirm the point; Dan Goldhaber of the University of Washington claims that "non-school factors", such as family income, account for as much as 60% of a child's performance in school.Yet the link is much more variable than education egalitarians suggest. Australia, for instance, has wide discrepancies of income, but came a creditable ninth in the most recent PISA study. China, rapidly developing into one of the world's least equal societies, finished first.Culture is certainly a factor. Many Asian parents pay much more attention to their children's test results than Western ones do, and push their schools to succeed. Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea sit comfortably at the top of McKinsey's rankings (see table 2). But not only do some Western countries do fairly well; there are also huge differences within them. Even if you put to one side the unusual Asians, as this briefing will now do, many Western systems could jump forward merely by bringing their worst schools up to the standard of their best.C-E社会实践是法律的基础,法律是实践经验的总结、提炼。社会实践永无止境,法律体系也要与时俱进。建设中国特色社会主义是一项长期的历史任务,完善中国特色社会主义法律体系同样是一项长期而又艰巨的任务,必须随着中国特色社会主义实践的发展不断向前推进。法律的生命力在于实施。中国特色社会主义法律体系的形成,总体上解决了有法可依的问题,对有法必依、执法必严、违法必究提出了更为突出、更加紧迫的要求。中国将积极采取有效措施,切实保障宪法和法律的有效实施,加快推进依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家的进程。

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